FAQ

This FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) page aims to provide helpful information and guidance on common questions and concerns related to Pactus.

***
General

What does "Pactus" mean?

The word "Pactus" is of Latin origin and means "to agree together", "contract", or "transact". In English, the term "Pact" is derived from the Latin word "Pactus".

Is Pactus a copy of any other blockchain?

No, Pactus is not a copy or a derivative of any other blockchain. It is a new and unique blockchain protocol that has been designed from scratch. The consensus mechanism used in Pactus is unique and specifically created to solve the scalability issue of validators in the Proof of Stake blockchains.

Did Pactus have an ICO?

No, Pactus didn't have any ICO or Initial Coin Offering.

Where can I buy Pactus coins?

Pactus does not have any pre-sales coins. The only way to obtain Pactus coins at the moment is by installing the Pactus software and actively participating in block validation. By engaging in the network and contributing to block validation, you will be rewarded with Pactus coins.

Why was Pactus developed?

Pactus was developed with the goal of scaling blockchain without compromising security and decentralization. To achieve this, Pactus utilizes a unique consensus mechanism that enables the creation of blocks in just 10 seconds. Moreover, Pactus was designed to be more accessible to all users, regardless of their technical expertise or financial resources.

What problems does Pactus solve that other blockchains don't?

Pactus tries to solve several problems faced by other blockchain networks, including:

Scalability: Pactus has a unique consensus mechanism that is specifically designed to address the scalability issue without sacrificing the security and decentralization.

Accessibility: Running a node on Pactus is designed to be more accessible to normal users compared to other blockchains.

Storage cost: Pactus offers a novel storage solution by allowing users to allocate dedicated storage files, reducing storage costs and simplifying the smart contracts.

How is Pactus different from Bitcoin?

Pactus and Bitcoin are two different types of blockchain networks. While Bitcoin uses a process called "Proof of Work" to secure its network, Pactus uses a different method called "Proof of Stake". This means that instead of mining, validators are responsible for voting on incoming blocks and must hold a certain amount of the network's coin, known as "stake", as a security deposit to prevent malicious behavior.

How is Pactus different from Ethereum?

Pactus and Ethereum are both Proof of Stake blockchains, but they differ in their approach to running a validator. Running a validator on Ethereum can be challenging and requires 32 Ethereum coins to stake. In Pactus, there is no fixed amount for staking. Pactus is specifically designed to be more accessible to normal users, and you can run the Pactus blockchain on your personal computer with basic hardware.
Validator

What are validators?

Validators on Pactus are responsible for processing transactions and creating blocks and, by doing so, helping to secure the network and keep it decentralized. They use their own coins as a stake to ensure the network's security and receive rewards for their contributions.

How many validators does Pactus have?

Pactus is a real Proof of Stake blockchain, which means there is no limit on the number of validators in the network. However, a committee of 51 validators is responsible for creating blocks. It's important to note that the committee members are not fixed and they change over time.

What are the minimum and maximum amounts I can stake?

In Pactus, there is no minimum limit for staking coins, but the maximum amount you can stake is 1000 coins. If you want to stake more than 1000 coins, you can run a new validator. Running multiple validators keeps the network more decentralized and helps maintain its security and stability.

What are the minimum hardware requirements?

After thorough testing on multiple machines, we can conclude that the recommended minimum hardware requirements are as follows:

Private Server:
  • CPU's: 1/2 physical core / 1vCPU
  • RAM: 1 GB Ram
  • Storage (SSD): 20 GB NVMe Drive
  • Network: stable internet connection with 1 TBps speed
Personal Computer or Laptop:
  • CPU's: 2 physical cores / 4vCPU
  • RAM: 4 GB Ram
  • Storage (SSD): 64 GB SSD Drive
  • Network: stable internet connection with over 15 MBps speed
These specifications have been tested and provide an availability score of over 0.9.

Why is there a limit for maximum stake?

The limit for the maximum stake per validator enhances decentralization and prevents validators from gaining too much power, which could potentially lead them to control the committee. The maximum staking limit is part of the consensus parameters and can be changed in the future through consensus among the validators.

Can I run multiple validators on one computer?

The Pactus software allows you to run up to 32 validators on a single node. Running multiple validators may require slightly more memory, but it has no impact on storage, and has a negligible effect on CPU and networking usage. Running multiple validators on a single node enables users to distribute their stake across multiple validators, especially when they want to stake more than the maximum stake per validator. This eliminates the need for additional resources and simplifies node management.

How do validators get rewarded?

Once a validator proposes a valid block and it is accepted by the network, the validator receives one coin as a block reward. The reward is an incentive given to validators for their contribution to the network.

How much is the block reward in Pactus?

Block reward in Pactus is fixed, and it is always one coin per block. This flat reward scheme helps to ensure simplicity, fairness and better coin distribution. How much is the block reward in Pactus?

How many PAC coins are generated per day?

Daily, a total amount of 8640 PAC is generated. This figure translates to 241,000 every 28 days and 3,153,600 per year.
Consensus

How does Pactus blockchain work?

Pactus operates with a committee of validators who are responsible for creating new blocks. The committee consists of 51 validators, however, the members of the committee change randomly over time. Every 10 seconds, a validator in the committee known as the proposer collects all the valid transactions, adds them into a block, and shares it with other validators in the committee. If more than ⅔ of the stakeholders in the committee attest to the proposed block by signing it, the block gets committed and all the transactions inside the block will be executed. This process repeats every 10 seconds. How does Pactus blockchain work?

How can a validator enter to the committee?

To enter the committee in Pactus, validators participate in a sortition process that occurs at each block. In this process, validators generate a provable random number between zero and the total staked coins, and if the number is less than their stake, they can send a transaction known as sortition transaction with the proof of sortition. Once the sortition transaction is included in a block, the validator replaces the oldest committee member.

How are block proposers selected in the committee?

The block proposer inside the committee is selected based on the time they entered the committee. This means that the selection process follows a first-come, first-propose order.

Can multiple validators enter the committee at once?

The process of sortition in Pactus is random, so it's possible for more than one validator to enter the committee at once, or no validator at all. However, on average, one validator should join the committee at each block.

Is it possible to have two valid blocks at the same time?

It is not possible to have two valid blocks at the same time in Pactus blockchain. The consensus algorithm in Pactus prevents the possibility of having two block proposers at the same time. This ensures that there will be no fork in the network.

How much is the block confirmation in the Pactus Blockchain?

Block confirmation refers to the number of blocks that need to be created before a transaction is considered final and irreversible. In Pactus, block confirmation is immediate, meaning that once a transaction is added to a block, it is considered confirmed and cannot be reversed.
Economy

What is the total supply of Pactus coins?

Pactus has a total supply of 42 million coins, and each coin is divided into 1 billion units. $$ 1 \ PAC = 10^9 \ SatoshiPAC $$

How are Genesis Coins allocated in Pactus?

The initial allocation of Genesis Coins in the Pactus blockchain is distributed as follows:

Genesis Coin Allocation for Pactus
Category Coin Allocation Percentage
Treasury 21 Million coins 50%
Foundation 8.4 Million coins 20%
VC Allocation 6.3 Million coins 15%
Team and Operations 4.2 Million coins 10%
Community 2.1 Million coins 5%
How are Genesis Coins allocated in Pactus?

What is the Treasury account?

The Treasury account is a special account in Pactus blockchain that holds 21 million coins at the genesis time. It has no key pair associated with it, meaning it cannot be accessed or controlled by anyone. Every time a block is created, one coin from the Treasury account transfers to the proposer account as a block reward.

How will the Treasury coins be distributed?

Treasury coins are distributed as block rewards to the block proposers. Every 10 seconds, one coin from the Treasury account transfers to the block proposer account. This process is called "coin minting". As a result, the total number of Pactus coins in circulation gradually increases over time as new blocks are added to the blockchain. Every day, 8,640 coins are minted, resulting in approximately 3 million coins being minted annually by the Treasury account. How will the Treasury coins be distributed?

How will the Support coins be spent?

The support accounts are designed to provide financial backing for the project. Initially, Pactus Genesis contained only the Treasury accounts without any Backup or Support accounts. The introduction of support coins was a strategic response to the absence of investors, despite the significant progress of the project.

These coins are allocated in several ways:
  • Community: This portion will mainly support the community. As part of this, the participants on Testnets receive initial staking coins to setup their validator and secure the Mainnet.
  • Team and Operations: Another portion supports the project team. Team members receive a monthly distribution of these coins, which is estimated to sustain the team for over six years.
  • Venture Capital (VC) Allocation: Another portion is set aside for any potential venture capitalists who might show interest in investing in the project in the future.
  • Foundation: The foundation coins are reserved for future use, potentially in supporting strong projects that align with Pactus's objectives.
Transparency is a key aspect of this allocation, as all movements of these coins are trackable due to the fully transparent nature of the blockchain.
Transaction

What is a Transfer transaction?

A transfer transaction is a type of transaction that allows users to transfer Pactus coin from one account to another.

What is a Bond transaction?

A bond transaction is a type of transaction that allows users to become a validator by staking some coins. The amount of stake determines the voting power in the consensus.

What is a Sortition transaction?

A sortition transaction is a type of transaction that allows validators to enter the committee.

What is an Unbond transaction?

An unbond transaction is a type of transaction that allows users to unbond their validator. Once a validator is unbonded, they can no longer participate in the consensus mechanism.

What is a Withdraw transaction?

A withdraw transaction is a type of transaction that allows a validator to withdraw their staked coins from the network.